News 11 Oct. 2023
Curtis Team Instrumental in Shareholder Approval of a New Multilateral Treaty to Transform Pan-African Housing Finance Institution Shelter Afrique into a Development Bank
Event 23 Aug. 2023
Partner Borzu Sabahi Speaks at the 52nd IDRI Professional Accreditation & Membership Programme
Event 18 Aug. 2023
Partner Borzu Sabahi Speaks at FDI Moot Shenzhen
News 25 Jul. 2023
Partner Eric Gilioli Ranked in Top 10 Influential Energy & Natural Resources Lawyers in Kazakhstan in Business Today
Article 22 Aug. 2023
Fuad Zarbiyev Publishes Article in Journal of International Economic Law
Client Alert 14 Aug. 2023
The EU’s Market in Crypto Assets (MiCA) Regulation: The Highlights
Event 22 Aug. 2023
Partner Dr. Claudia Frutos-Peterson to Speak at Arbitration and ADR Commission of the ICC Mexico
Event 11 Jul. 2023
Partner Elisa Botero Speaks on the Role of the ICC in Investment Disputes
News 15 Aug. 2023
Legal Reader Publishes Article on Dr. Majed Alotaibi’s Arrival as Senior Counsel in Curtis’ Riyadh Office
News 31 Jul. 2023
Curtis Welcomes Senior Saudi Advisor, Dr. Majed Alotaibi, to its Riyadh Office
News 24 Aug. 2023
Curtis Attorneys Quoted in CoinDesk on FTX Founder Sam Bankman-Fried’s Strategy Ahead of His Criminal Trial
News 06 Mar. 2023
Russia Sanctions at the First Anniversary: An Overview of Current Sanctions in the US, UK, and EU and How Global Companies Can Navigate Evolving and Conflicting Sanctions Regimes
Client Alert 30 Aug. 2022
The EU Adopts the “Maintenance and Alignment” Sanctions Package
Client Alert 24 Jun. 2021
Update on Virtual Notarization (Executive Order 202.7) During the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) Pandemic (Updated: June 24, 2021) — U.S. Insight
Update on Virtual Witnessing (New York Executive Order 202.14) During The COVID-19 (Coronavirus) Pandemic (Updated: June 24, 2021) — U.S. Insight
Client Alert 01 Mar. 2023
The full article is available here.
A brief overview of the
national regulation on agency contracts, firstly to highlight the key aspects
of this sector and, secondly, to point out the peculiarities of these matters,
which often represent threats for principals.
The agency contract
represents one of the most important tools for entrepreneurs who seek to create
their own product promotion network. This tool is particularly relevant within
the fashion industry and it is used, among others, by new fashion and luxury
companies which need a channel to promote their brands.
Therefore, first of all, it
is of particular interest to offer a brief overview of the national legislation
on agency contracts, highlighting the fundamental aspects of the sector;
secondly, it will be useful to point out the peculiarities of these contracts,
which often represent threats for principals.
Within the Italian national legal system, the agency contract is regulated by article 1742 and subsequent articles of the Italian Civil Code. In particular, the agency contract is an agreement whereby the entrepreneur appoints an agent to facilitate, on an ongoing basis, the conclusion of contracts for the marketing of its products within a specified territorial area.The activity of the agent – who is also qualified as an entrepreneur as it bears the economic risk of its activity – consists in finding new customers and businesses for the entrepreneur by transmitting to the principal the orders it collects within a given geographical area.As remuneration for the activity performed, the agent is entitled to receive a commission, which is a fee proportional to the number and amount of businesses and transactions concluded on behalf of the principal.The agency contract represents a typical contract for continuous or periodic performance, which can be concluded for a fixed term or indefinite term, with or without exclusivity. Upon termination of the relationship, the agent may be entitled to receive an equitable indemnity calculated pursuant to the conditions provided for by article 1751 of the Italian Civil Code. This indemnity is not due when the termination of the contract is caused by an agent’s default or is a consequence of the agent’s withdrawal or when the agent assigns to a third party the rights under the agency contract.
Among the various tools available in the market for the distribution and sale of fashion products, agency contracts are of particular importance. In fact, they are among the main channels of distribution and marketing of products in the fashion industry.
The agency contract, in fact, presents clear advantages for the entrepreneur, as it allows the fashion company:
However, as a counterbalance to the above, the agency contract imposes onerous constraints on the principal both in terms of limited means to “exit” the relationship and in terms of compensation due to the agent. The agency contract, in fact, is subject to a specific and peculiar regulation in our legal system aimed to protect the position of the agent, making it burdensome for the principal to withdraw from the contractual relationship.
Given the specific market sector under analysis, the critical issues that fashion companies, especially in the initial phase of their businesses, should cautiously consider when they intend to enter into an agency relationship are highlighted below. As mentioned above, these critical issues arise when the fashion company wants to terminate the agency relationship.
Upon termination of the agency relationship – except when the termination is the result of an agent’s default, is a consequence of the agent’s withdrawal or when the agent assigns to a third party the rights under the agency contract – the agent is entitled to receive indemnities, as long as the following conditions are met:
Indemnities cannot exceed an amount equal to a year of commissions, calculated by taking the average of the commissions received during the previous five years (or for how many years commissions have been paid, if less than five).
Firstly, the agent loses the right to receive indemnities when the principal terminates the contract as a result of a default attributable to the agent, which, because of its seriousness, does not allow a continuation of the relationship, even on a temporary basis.
Therefore, in order to exclude the right to receive indemnities, it is not sufficient for the agent’s default to be of “slight importance”, but instead it should be of such seriousness that the contract can no longer continue in any way.
Secondly, the agent loses the right to receive indemnities without just cause in case of withdrawal from the contractual relationship, if the conditions in the previous paragraph are not met. In particular, when:
The timing to formalize the termination of the relationship is essential. Even in cases of serious default of the agent, the principal is not allowed to terminate the relationship without any formality. On the contrary, it is necessary for, concurrently with the above, the principal to expressly communicate the reasons for which it wants to terminate the relationship, specifically listing the breaches committed by the agent and their seriousness.
The agent retains the right to receive commissions for business concluded after the termination of the agency, provided that:
It’s often the case that the agency contract contains clauses which require the agent to reach minimum sales targets. Such a clause, together with the express termination clause, assuming that the parties have considered the failure to meet the established sales targets as particularly serious breach, should – at least in theory – result in the loss of the right of the agent to receive the payment of termination indemnities.
However, it is important to emphasize that the recent case law on agency contracts has taken a particularly cautious attitude towards agents. According to the mentioned case law, it should be appropriate, even in the presence of an express termination clause, to assess the seriousness of the breach, for example by verifying whether, in concrete terms, the difference between the result achieved by the agent and the sales target could qualify as a breach so serious as to prevent the continuation of the relationship even on a temporary basis.
Fashion, Beauty and Luxury
Daniela Della Rosa
+39 02 7623 2001
Article 30 Nov. 2023
Evaluation of Shares and Conventional Withdrawal of the Shareholder: A New Direction
Article 21 Nov. 2023
Virtual Try-on: A New Way of Shopping
Article 07 Nov. 2023
Antonio Prida Publishes Voces México Article on 67th Annual UIA Congress